Anti-caking Agent, Free-flowing Agent
Anti-caking or free-flowing agents are separating agents which are added to salt to prevent caking or agglutination and to thus maintain free-flowing properties. The most common free-flowing agents are ferrocyanide (E535), calcium carbonate (E170) and magnesium carbonate (E504).
The barrier theory is the Carl Ochsenius' (a 19th century geologist) explanation of how rock salt deposits were formed: During the Permian period, more than 230 million years ago, large parts of Central Europe and other regions were covered by an inland sea, which was largely cut off from the open sea by shallow straits, also known as bars or barriers. Since at that time our latitudes possessed a dry, hot climate, the intense solar radiation evaporated the water, like in a gigantic evaporating pan. The salinity of the body of water increased until the dissolved minerals (carbonates, sulphates and then chlorides) crystallized out, like in a giant stewing pan.
Brine is a salt water solution. The term brine is used to refer both to a natural source of salt water and a solution created by dissolving salt in water.
In mining, a cavern is a relatively large, artificially created underground cavity.
The basic chemicals chlorine, hydrogen and sodium hydroxide are obtained from sodium chloride by means of chlor-alkali electrolysis. Rock or vacuum salt is dissolved in water and conveyed as concentrated brine into the electrolysis cells. Chlorine, hydrogen and sodium hydroxide are required for the production of polyvinylchloride (PVC), that is, plastic materials.
Salt that has been compressed or compacted is called compacted salt.
Crystallization is the term used to describe the nucleation of dissolved salts and their growth into crystals during salt production. In the majority of cases, this occurs under pressure in closed evaporation systems. The salt thus obtained is called vacuum salt (also: evaporated salt) and is especially pure.
De-icing Salt, Road Salt
De-icing salt, also called road salt, is sodium chloride (NaCl) or common salt, which is used in winter to melt snow and ice on roads, thus counteracting hard-packed snow and black ice.
Deposits, Salt Deposits
Deposits are certain parts of the earth's crust in which natural concentrations of solid, liquid or gaseous raw materials can be found.
These occurrences are categorized according to their formation and form in horizontal deposits or salt domes / salt caps.
The original form is the horizontal deposit which has not been affected by tectonic forces from the earth's interior.
The splitting of a chemical compound by means of electric current is termed electrolysis.
Fleur de Sel
This is French for “Flower of Salt” and is a special sea salt quality. Fleur de Sel occurs under special weather conditions on the water surface of the sea salt gardens. Its structure is particularly crunchy and it has a high residual moisture content.
Flor de Sal
This is the Spanish and Portuguese term for "Fleur de Sel".
In general, food-grade salt is understood to be sodium chloride that is absorbed through food. Food-grade salt is one of the most important mineral substances in human nutrition.
In mining, a gallery is a horizontal mine without a surface opening.
The horizon is the term used for the floor of a mine; but it is also the position in terms of height of a horizontal system of galleries in a mine; e.g. the 700 m horizon is located 700 m below the earth's surface.
Salt of the quality used in manufacturing and processing industries is termed industrial salt. Industrial salts are e.g. dyeing salts for the textile industry, hide curing salts for leather and fur processing, and salt for the treatment of animal bowels.
Iodized salt is a table salt which is enriched with iodate – during the production process potassium iodate is added to the sodium chloride.
Lick Stone, Lick Block
A lick stone (lick block) or salt lick stone is a stone made of salt which is used for farm animals such as cows or horses, pets or small animals. In most cases, rock or vacuum salt – in its natural state or enriched with other minerals or trace elements as well as herbs and flavours – is pressed into a block form.
Mine, Mine Workings
The mines are the cavities created for the extraction of mineral raw materials, such as ore, coal and salt. The underground mines as a whole are termed the mine workings. The mine workings together with the mechanical equipment can also be called the mine. The mine together with the above-ground apparatus and equipment finally make up the mining facilities.
Bedlike deposits are often mined by so-called pillar-and-chamber working. During salt mining, elongated underground mining chambers are created in the deposit. Pillars are erected between them, which support the rock above.
Open-cast mining is appropriate primarily for the extraction of raw materials, which are located relatively close to the earth's surface or otherwise "come to light". During open-cast mining, the deposit is thus revealed, in contrast to excavation or underground mining.
PDV = Pure Dried Vacuum salt; PDV stands for highly pure dried vacuum salt, which, thanks to its purity, is frequently used as food-grade salt, for industrial applications and for pharmaceutical purposes.
Salt in pharmacopoeia quality is an important basic substance for the pharmaceutical industry. For example, infusions and dialysis solutions are created from it. Moreover, salt is utilized in the production of medicines and dietary supplements as well as cosmetic and wellness products.
Pickling salt is one of the food-grade salts and is salt that has been specially enriched with nitrite for the pickling of meat and meat products. Together with curing, pickling is one of the oldest ways of preserving meat and meat products. It preserves the color and edibility of meat products, gives meat products their typical pickled aroma and is moreover used as an antioxidation agent.
The pit foreman was, in the past, a mining supervisor. He was responsible for a part of the mine and for the people working under him.
Regeneration Salt, Water Softening Salt
Water softening salt is special salt for water softening facilities and dishwashers. They are used to regenerate the ion-exchange material, i.e. to restore its ability to absorb for the hardness constituents in the water - primarily calcium and magnesium ions.
Rock salt is a mineral compound with a very high sodium chloride content, which, however, varies depending on the deposit. Rock salt is extracted by miners underground. The rock salt deposits originated about 230 million years ago as the result of the evaporation of what were once oceans. Keyword: barrier theory
The word "salary" (= payment for work, remuneration) is derived from the Latin word "sal" (= salt).
In olden days, obtaining salt was a far more complicated and dangerous process than it is today. Salt was therefore significantly more expensive, even precious, and was worth its weight in gold. That's why salt was sometimes accepted as a means of payment. For example, Roman soldiers received parts of their pay in the form of salt, the so-called "salarium argentum" ("sal" = salt, "argentum" = silver / money, and thus effectively "salt money").
The current French word "salaire", in English "salary", bears witness to this. This etymology can also be found in the terms for remuneration / pay in other languages: "salario" in Spanish, "salário" in Portuguese etc.
Saline, Saltern, Salt Works,
A saline, saltern or salt works is a facility or operation for obtaining salt, except for salt mines in which salt is extracted by miners.We distinguish primarily between:
vacuum salt works in which so-called vacuum salt (also called evaporated salt, saline salt or refined salt) is produced from saturated brine by means of evaporation; and
sea water salt works in which sea salt is obtained from sea water through evaporation.
Salt Dome, Salt Cap
A salt dome or salt cap is, in most cases, a steep formation. Tectonic forces from the earth's interior deformed the originally horizontal deposits and e.g. created a steep, roughly mushroom shape under high pressure.
Salt for Chemical Use, Electrolysis Salt
Salt for chemical use is salt of the quality from which primarily the chemical industry, by means of chloralkali electrolysis, obtains the basic chemicals chlorine, hydrogen and sodium hydroxide, which it requires for the production of plastics (e.g. PVC - polyvinyl chloride).
A salt garden is a sea water saltworks in which sea salt is obtained from sea water through evaporation.
At esco we use the term salt specialties to refer to all salt products that are not de-icing salt or winter maintenance products. Salt specialties are thus all food-grade salts and table salts, industrial salts, salts for chemical use, pharma salts, etc., regardless of whether the product is made from rock salt, vacuum salt or sea salt.
Salt Tablets, Tablet Salt
Salt pressed into tablet from is mainly used as regenerating salt for water softening.
Sea salt, sometimes also called solar salt, is obtained from so-called salt gardens through crystallization. During crystallization, the effects of the sun and wind play a major role. Sea salt also contains, in addition to sodium chloride, small quantities or traces of other substances, including potassium, magnesium and manganese salts.
Sodium Chloride, NaCl
Sodium chloride / NaCl, in mineralogy also called halite, occurs naturally in large quantities, in part dissolved in sea water, in part in solid form and different concentrations in numerous mineral compounds, such as sylvinite and carnallite.
During the solution mining process, fresh water is fed into a salt cap via bore holes. This dissolves the salt and the salt-saturated brine is then brought to the surface. Usually, the dissolved salt is evaporated in salt works to become vacuum salt, also called evaporated salt.
In general, we use the term table salt to refer to all food-grade salt products produced in household packaging for the consumer and sold by the retail trade.
In mining, a tunnel is a horizontal mine with a surface opening.
Vacuum Salt, Evaporated Salt, Refined Salt, Saline Salt
White gold is generally a synonym for a white substance, which owing to its preciousness, is referred to as gold, and therefore as something very valuable - without being gold or white gold at all.
Salt is traditionally called white gold.